Rice thrives in hot and dry to humid climates. However, extreme heat episodes can irreversibly damage rice yield, grain quality, and plant processes such as germination and fertilization.
Rice is highly susceptible to heat stress, particularly during the reproductive and ripening stages. Extremely high temperatures, even for a few hours, during flowering can cause complete sterility, while high temperatures during ripening can lead to reduced grain filling and poor milling quality (i.e., more broken grains). And, in combination with other constraints such as lack of water, canopy temperatures can increase even further. Read more